In memorable March 1921, after the adoption of the democratic constitution on March 17, 1921, the end of the victorious battles with the Bolsheviks and the conclusion of a peace agreement in Riga, on March 18, a plebiscite was held in Upper Silesia in March. 20. The date of the referendum was extremely unfavorable for Poland. After all, the Bolshevik army stood until recently near Warsaw, Lviv, Buk and Włocławek.
Partition and occupation forces devastated the country. The Supreme Council of Winners, under pressure from Great Britain, withdrew from the original prize for this region for Poland without a referendum, and ordered a plebiscite with the participation of so-called immigrants in 90% of the electorate of Germany. In the referendum – regardless of immigrant votes – the Germans used their dominance in the economy, administration, education, and hierarchy of the Catholic Church, debunking the thesis: Without Upper Silesia, we would not be able to offer war reparations to the Catholic Church. The winners, besides this, the Poles are not ready to manage the economy of Upper Silesia in favor of the reconstruction of Europe after the war, because they represent much lower standards of social rights than the German ones.
The Polish Referendum Commission, the official institution that represents the interests of the Polish population in the Silesian region and the Polish state in the years 1920-1921 in the referendum area, found itself in a difficult position. In December 1919, the Presidency of the Council of Ministers entrusted Wojciech Korfanty to lead the work of the plebiscite – although it was not until February 20, 1920 by Józef Piłsudski, the head of state, who appointed Corvante the Polish Commissioner of the Referendum. The committee, like the Government of National Defense and Vincenti Witos, was coalition in nature. The tasks of the Plebiscite Deputies were carried out by: Konstanti Wolni, leader of the Christian People’s Union – an intellectual bourgeois party that fights for the reunification of the Silesian plebeian with Poland on the principles of Christian democracy; Joseph Reimer (leader of the Polish National Workers’ Party and the Polish Occupational Union, ZZP members form the core of the rebel ranks; Joseph Bineszkiewicz – leader of the Silesian PPS, favorably leaning toward POW G.’s policy of W. Corvanti, with modest influence among Silesian workers.
Corvante managed the commission vigorously, that is, more than 1,000 people working in 27 departments and local institutions. The Polish Red Cross delegations, prisoners of war in G. ląska and a large number of organizations that make up the Polish infrastructure in G. Śląsk cooperated with the commission. The headquarters of the commission was the hotel “Lomnitz”, whose employees repelled the attack of the German militia on 27/28 May 1920. The Central Referendum Committee, established on June 29, 1920, provided great assistance to the Commission with the assistance of the local committees of Silesia – headed by the Marshall of the Legislative Chamber of Deputies Wojciech Trumbekzynski. From June 15 to December 11, 1920, the Commission collected approximately 11.3 million Polish marks for referendum activities. From December 1920, the Coalition Committee for the Unification of Upper Silesia with the Republic of Poland, established on August 23, 1919, also cooperated with the Central Referendum Committee. Julian Adolf więcicki was responsible for her work. The committee held sessions for activists in the referendum, with lectures given by Vojciech Corvanti, Władysław Grabski and Marian Seyda. Many artists, officers, journalists, teachers and trainers sent scouts to the G. Śląsk region. He spent nearly 40 million Polish marks on publicity for the referendum. He funded the foreign missions of Kazimierz Rakovsky and Marianne Seda to Paris in the summer of 1921. He helped absorb and support refugees from G Silesia. Never before has interest in Silesian affairs been as intense as during the referendum, the Third Silesian Uprising, and the disagreements over the division of G. Silesia after the end of the uprising. On January 28, 1921, the Supreme Silesian Week was inaugurated in all of Poland under the auspices of the Head of State Josef Pisudski, Marshal of the House of Representatives Vojciech Trombczynski, Prime Minister Wincenti Witos, Commissioner of the Plebiscite Vojczyk Corvanti and Cardinal Berry. Dalbor. The honorary and executive committee included prominent local government activists, including M. Piotr Drzewiecki, mayor of Warsaw, who persuaded his colleagues to donate 10% of their salaries to the referendum. Catholic parishes in Warsaw, Poznan, Lviv, Krakow, Lublin and Chestuchova participated actively in the conduct of the referendum.
In the global version, in the March 20 poll, 40.3% of voters were in favor of Poland, and 59.4% were in favor of Germany. 48.1% of eligible rural voters voted for Poland, and 41.9% of eligible voters voted in homestead areas. GGląska residents eligible to vote voted for Poland 47%. Polish voices dominated the large-scale industrial area. In the news regarding the anti-Polish reading of the results of the referendum, especially by representatives of Great Britain and Italy, the population arose on the night of 2 – 3 May until the Third Silesian Uprising led by W. Corvante. Thanks to his leadership and diplomatic talents, political realism began, especially during negotiations, under the protection of the League of Nations on September 23, 1921, on October 12, the Council granted Poland 3000. square kilometers of Silesia, inhabited by nearly one million people. Apart from the agricultural regions – Pszczyna and Rybnik – Poland received a large part of the large industrial area (76% of mines, 97% of iron ore, 50% of sulfur, all zinc and lead smelters and the electrical center in Chorzów). In Silesia G. The League Council’s proposals were adopted by the Council of Ambassadors and converted into decisions of the major powers on October 20, 1921, along with a proposal to create a transitional amendment period.
It was a difficult compromise for Poland, achieved through the efforts of the citizens in the referendum campaign in G Silesia and in Poland, in the victorious second and third Silesian uprisings, and with the political talents of Wojciech Corvanti, Stanislav Grabsky and Kazimierz Olzewski.
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