The ozone hole is formed during the destruction of the ozone layer Earth. Then, chemical compounds called freons and halons are released into the atmosphere, which are harmful to the environment and can persist in the atmosphere for up to 100 years. Scientists warn that if people do not make changes, the ozone hole may cause massive floods associated with melting glaciers, severe droughts, and, consequently – lead to famine.

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High level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. It hasn’t been this way for long

Scientists are watching the development of the ozone hole: very large and likely deep

Currently, the ozone hole in the Southern Hemisphere covers an area of ​​20 million kilometers Square. For comparison, Antarctica has an area of ​​14 million kilometers Square. This year, the ozone hole is greater than 75 percent. The largest of them was recorded in September from the beginning of the measurements (from 1979).

The ozone layer over Antarctica is monitored by the Copernicus Atmospheric Monitoring Service (CAMS) operated by the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). The center makes the measurements thanks to the satellite data collected.

– The development of the ozone hole this year as expected at the beginning of the season. It looks quite similar to what happened last year, which was also one of the longest ozone holes. The vortex is fairly stable and temperatures in the stratosphere are lower than last year. So we look at a fairly large ozone hole and it is also likely to be deep (…) We note that the hole is not expanding very quickly, but we expect it to grow even by the beginning of October – he says ECMWF Vincent-Henri Beoch, Head of the European Union’s Satellite Monitoring Program.

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The ozone hole forms over Antarctica each year during the southern hemisphere spring (i.e. from August to October). It reaches its peak between mid-September and mid-October. When the temperature in the stratosphere begins to rise, the loss of ozone slows down, weather The electrode becomes weaker and eventually collapses to form a hole. By December, ozone levels are back to normal.

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Climate change increases fire risk

Rising temperature, along with intense heat waves and changes in weather patterns (such as more intense but less frequent rainfall) are the projected effects of global warming.

This increases the risks in the affected areas fires. For example, a scientific report commissioned by the Australian government estimates that a 2°C increase in temperature in many parts of the country would increase fire intensity by 25%, widen the area covered by fires by half, and reduce the time interval between a fire occurring.

In areas where there are bushfires, such as California and Australia, they can be more dangerous than before. Severe drought and heat, for example, allow for the emergence of massive fires – individual fires can reach 500,000. ha. Such a volume of fire is beyond the control of firefighters.

You can read more about the effects of the climate crisis and the solutions we have to combat it on the website