A new study reveals that a species of maggot gets hungry – and is angry with hunger – when food is scarce.
The larvae of the monarch butterfly (danaus plexippus) become aggressive fighters in their quest to eat milkweed – a herbaceous plant that is poisonous to most animals and their favorite food.
American researchers found that caterpillars with no less access to milkweed were more likely to lash out at others to push them aside.
The caterpillars were more aggressive during the last stages of importance before metamorphosis – transforming into an adorable butterfly.
Nutritional deficiencies during these larval stages can delay growth as well as reduce body size, reproductive performance, and age after metamorphosis.
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When food is scarce, monarch butterfly larvae go from docile to domineering. In the photo, the species in a bucket in the lab are throwing away a rare form of their favorite food – milkweed
“I decided to investigate royal larvae because I was intrigued by their aggressive behavior, which I noticed directly in my own garden,” said study author Alex Kane of Florida Atlantic University in the US.
They are large in size and easily recognizable compared to many other insects.
These are cute animals that everyone loves, and there is a growing appreciation for their ability to tell us how the brain controls behavior.
Kings transform from yellow-green striped caterpillars to gorgeous orange and black butterflies.
This species, which is native to the United States, is one of the largest butterflies in the British Isles with a wingspan between 3.7 to 3.9 inches (95-100 mm).
“These are cute animals that everyone loves, and there is a growing appreciation for their ability to tell us how the brain controls behavior,” said Kane.
Royal caterpillars mostly feed on milkweed and often strip entire plants of the leaves over the course of two weeks.
In many locations, herbs are only available for part of the year, which places a significant constraint on the evolution of the royal family.
Pictured is Danaus plexippus as a caterpillar. This species is a rare migratory to the British Isles. The first record of this species in the British Isles, by a schoolboy, was in September 1876 in Neith, South Wales, according to ukbutterflies.co.uk
And as a butterfly. It is famous for its ability to migrate over great distances. Migrations in North America are one of the greatest natural phenomena in the world
On its largest and most hungry stage, a single caterpillar might eat an entire leaf of lawn in as little as five minutes.
“If you compare that to a fruit fly where there are a lot of larvae on a single piece of rotting fruit, there is less competition there,” said Ken.
“But each of these larvae will at some point in their growth cycle encounter resource constraints.”
To study them, Kane and his team built an open lawn of milkweed behind their plant in Boca Raton, Florida, to lure the caterpillars.
“We found that nearly every nursery sells milkweed with pesticides, so we ended up planting our own.”
Back in the laboratory, the researchers put the larvae into groups with different amounts of milkweed and observed their levels of aggression.
They found that the number of rush to another caterpillar increased dramatically under conditions of reduced food availability, suggesting a link between “resource defense” and aggression.
Researchers found an increase in aggressive behavior – in the form of “headbands” – when food sources were scarce
Researchers hope to learn more about what drives this response in their brains, which is important to learn more about how these responses work outside of the lab.
“One of the fundamental problems with work like this is that we test animals in a very derivative environment, and that’s not what brains have evolved to do,” said Kane.
“Now that we have this invertebrate model in a relatively controlled environment but are doing environmentally relevant behavior, this becomes important in terms of looking at the mechanism and function of that behavior in more complex organisms.”
The study was published in iScience.
Monarch Butterfly: A Great British Immigrant
The monarch butterfly (danaus plexippus) is a native of the United States but one of the largest butterflies seen in the British Isles.
It is known for its ability to travel long distances.
Each fall, millions of monarch butterflies migrate 3,000 miles from their breeding grounds in northeastern North America.
Monarch butterflies must migrate because they cannot survive the long, cold northern winter.
The first record of this species was in the British Isles, by a schoolboy, on September 6, 1876 in Neath, South Wales.
Although it was thought that the initial records were the result of accidental transport by ships, subsequent years, such as 1933 when 40 individuals were arrested, mean that this theory has been rejected and that the most likely cause is true immigration.
This butterfly is also occasionally recorded from the British Isles, making it our largest and rarest migratory butterfly.
Royal larvae only feed on milkweed plants – and are toxic to most animals.
Kings have evolved to tolerate and use them to their advantage, storing toxins in their bodies and making themselves poisonous to predators.
The total number of records for the British Isles is less than 500.
In August 1981, a king who had escaped from a nearby butterfly farm is seen lying on Milkweeds in Kew Gardens.
Some eggs were collected and reared indoors, as the adult animal emerged only one month after laying the egg.
Source: ukbutterflies.co.uk/National Museums Scotland