On Friday, after a three-year hiatus, it will be launched Large Hadron Collider (Large Hadron Collider, or LHC) at CERN, Switzerland, near Geneva. In its 27-kilometre tunnel, particles are accelerated to great speeds. Others are created in particle collisions, and this allows physicists to examine theoretical predictions computed from equations.

Equations that describe particles are called Standard FormIt was developed until the seventies of the last century. It explains many of the rules that govern the particle world. made it possible to predict the discovery of the last of them, Higgs bosonIn 2012.

Unfortunately, it does not explain everything – for example, it does not show at all why certain particles have only this mass and not another. This bothers physicists and makes them suspect that it is not a perfect model. Outside of it, there may be unknown laws of physics.

The results of experiments in recent years point to the fact that there are hitherto undiscovered laws that govern the particle world. was one of them LHCb . experiencewho study the decay of b quarks (called beautiful or bottom quarks).

According to the Standard Model, these particles must often decay into another quark (called a stranger) and two electrons, or into an s quark and two muons. Measurements showed that the first decay occurs more often, with a pair of electrons – and that a pair of muons occurs less frequently. This was a huge difference – instead of the 50 to 50 ratio, it turned out to be 57.5 to 42.5 percent. The b quarks decay into muons by 15 percent Less than the theory expects.