Villasini from ETH Zurich, Switzerland and Roger Kolbeck from York University, UK Using mathematical tools, they created a set of theoretical universes. They did not attribute to them any special laws of physics, such as gravity. They just assumed that there are people who can submit information, verify it, and act on it. They also cannot communicate faster than the speed of light. The results they obtained showed that These loops are mathematically possible In universes similar to ours.

Imagine you are copying a page from a textbook describing Albert Einstein’s special theory of relativity. You travel back in time to the beginning of the twentieth century and give it to this distinguished world before 1905, the moment of its inception. It in turn rewrites and publishes the data. This will lead to a theoretical situation where the information has no real origin. After all, Einstein did not make it, but only copied it from a textbook describing a formula he invented … Well, who? Are you sure about Einstein?

in Doctor Who series Consider the hypothetical example of a time traveler who transcribed Beethoven’s music and published it on the composer’s day in his own name. Who will be the real composer of the famous Fifth Symphony?

Thus, a causal loop is a theoretical case in which an event (or a person) is one of the causes of another event, which in turn is one of the causes of the first mentioned event. Other terms for causal loop include, for example An informational paradox, an existential paradox, or a self-sufficient loop.

Episodes can remove the source of some information. This would lead to a situation where some information comes from from nothing. According to Villasini, the time-episodes examined should not lead to dramatic events. They only show a possible connection between the past and the future, contrary to our intuition.

The universe designed by the researchers is consistent with the real universe when it comes to the maximum speed of moving objects, which means that nothing can travel faster than light. However, there are still three dimensions of space that can alter the mathematical equations to create impossible loops. Scientists are still studying the effects of three dimensions on causal loops. Perhaps we will know more details soon.

source: arXiv: 2109.12128v2And the arXiv: 2206.12887v1

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