The political system of Great Britain is a parliamentary monarchy, which includes a ministerial council and a parliamentary system. In addition, what distinguishes the British political system is the two-party system and the shadow government work associated with it.
The British Parliament is made up of three important organs in the country: the House of Commons, which is the House of Representatives, and the House of Lords, which is the Senate and the King (currently Queen Elizabeth II). The numerical composition of the House of Commons is variable and depends on the number of individual constituencies.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is currently divided into 650 geographical constituencies, of which 553 are in England, 59 in Scotland, 40 in Wales and 18 in Northern Ireland. There is an average of one electoral district for a population of 69,000, and county boundaries are corrected on average once every 10 years. Only one member of the House of Commons enters from each electoral district.
It should be noted, however, that Scotland has a separate Parliament, and Wales and Northern Ireland have their own Parliament, which holds separate elections.
The British system of single-member constituencies is used during the House of Commons elections, which is equivalent to the Polish House of Representatives. The House of Commons is the only superpower
Britain, with the exception of local government authorities, is elected by popular vote. The House of Lords is an unelected body and its composition and structure is determined by the centuries-old traditions of the United Kingdom.
The term of office of the House of Commons has not been precisely defined, although a September 2011 act set five years as the maximum term for the UK Parliament. After them
After the expiration date, new elections must be announced. There is, of course, the possibility of holding early elections, but this is only possible in two cases:
– When the House of Commons passes a vote of no confidence in the government and a new government cannot be formed within 14 days, which will receive a vote of confidence;
When two-thirds of the total number of members of the House of Commons decide to call early elections.
In the United Kingdom, citizens 18 years of age and over have the right to vote and vote. Not only citizens of the Commonwealth of Nations and the Republic of Ireland, but also immigrants who have already obtained residency status, have the right to vote in elections to the British Parliament. However, a large group is excluded from voting in the election.
Members are deprived of voting rights House of LordsPrisoners serving their sentences and those with mental illness and persons convicted of electoral offenses. However, the British monarch has the right to vote.
Parliamentary elections in Great Britain always take place on Thursdays, usually in early spring and often in May. Voters have only one vote at their disposal. They vote by placing an X next to the name of their choice. Candidates for the House of Commons are listed in alphabetical order on the ballot.
You can vote not only at the polling station, but also by mail or proxy. If the voter is disabled or illiterate, he may request assistance from a member of the Electoral Commission. It should be noted that voting cards in Great Britain have serial numbers. This is to prevent counterfeiting.
The party that received the most votes in the House of Commons elections forms the government. The king is the one who entrusts the leader of the winning party with the post of prime minister, who then determines the composition and structure of the government, the number of ministries, and the scope of their duties.
Interestingly, the largest opposition party appoints its government with a full ministerial team. This is the so-called shade cabinet, and it’s ready to take over at any time, if needed Great Britain. The Leader of the Opposition automatically assumes the position of Leader of the Opposition to Her Majesty and receives a service salary of three fifths of that of the Prime Minister.