Typically solar flares, the energy is emitted outward from the star, while in this particular case the opposite is observed – a downward movement as if matter were falling towards the star. Astronomers have described these structures as “dark voids moving downward” and have long wondered where they come from.

On January 27, 2022, a new explanation for this phenomenon was published in the journal Nature Astronomy. A team of scientists from Harvard University’s Center for Astrophysics (CfA) has named the mysterious structures Pool over the lanes (sad). It has been described by scholars as “Dark finger-like elements” Observed during solar flares.

We wanted to know how these structures are formed. What drives them and are they really related to magnetic reconnection? CfA’s Chengcai Shen, lead author of the study, said.

Astronomers hypothesize that SADs Related to magnetic reconnection Since their discovery in the nineties of the last century. They are created when magnetic fields refract, releasing fast-moving and highly effective radiation.

– In the Sun we are dealing with many magnetic fields that are directed in different directions. Eventually, the magnetic fields are pushed together to the point where they reconfigure and release a lot of energy in the form of a solar flare. It’s like pulling a rubber band and cutting it in the middle. CfA’s Cathy Reeves, a co-author on the study, said it’s tight and stretched so you’ll be back.

Scientists hypothesized that SADs occur when gaps in magnetic fields close again after a volcanic eruption from a solar flare. did not agree with the notes because Most cases of social anxiety were ‘surprisingly slow’.

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– This was not predicted by classical magnetic reconnection models showing that SADs should be much faster. It is a struggle that needs another explanation, added Chengcai Shen.

Scientists analyzed seasonal affective disorder images captured by a scientific satellite Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO)Which takes pictures of the sun every 12 seconds at seven different wavelengths of light. Next, a 3D simulation of the solar flare was performed and compared with the observations. The results showed that most SADs are not caused by magnetic reconnection. it pose spontaneously near the solar plasma It is the result of the interaction of liquids of different densities. The same thing happens when water and oil mix together.

The researchers plan to continue studying seasonal affective disorder and other aura phenomena using 3D simulations. This could help develop tools for space weather forecasting and mitigation.